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Atorvastatin Effect on COVID-19 Outcomes: A Propensity Score Matched Study on Hospitalized Patients


Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Omid Yazdani, Mehdi Azizmohammad Looha, Seyed Amir Ahmad Safavi-Naini, Romina Esbati, Saba Ilkhani, Nazanin Taraghikhah, Hamidreza Hatamabadi, Amir Sadeghi, Kamran Heidari, Negarsadat Namazi, Naghmeh Asadimanesh, Saba Hatari, Shabnam Shahrokh, Ali Solhpour, Tannaz Jamialahmadi, Raul D. Santos and Amirhossein Sahebkar*   Pages 1 - 14 ( 14 )


Background : This study investigated the association of atorvastatin use on survival, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) among COVID-19 inpatients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between March 20th, 2020, and March 18th, 2021, on patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to three hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The unadjusted and adjusted effects of atorvastatin on COVID-19 prognosis were investigated. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to achieve a 1:1 balanced dataset with a caliper distance less than 0.1 and the nearest neighbor method without replacement. Results: Of 4322 COVID-19 patients, 2136 (49.42%) were treated with atorvastatin. After PSM, 1245 atorvastatin inpatients and 1245 controls were included with a median age of 62.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 51.0, 76.0) and 63.0 (IQR: 51.0, 75.0) years, respectively. The standardized mean differences were less than 0.1 for all confounders, suggesting a good covariate balance. The use of atorvastatin was associated with decreased COVID-19 mortality (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.68-0.95), whereas no relationship was found between atorvastatin and the need for ICU admission (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.99-1.47). LOS was significantly higher in the atorvastatin cohort than controls (Atorvastatin vs. others: 7 [5, 11] vs. 6 [4, 10] days; p = 0.003). The survival rate was higher in combination therapy of atorvastatin plus enoxaparin than in those who received atorvastatin alone (p-value=0.001). Conclusion: Atorvastatin may reduce the risk of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality and could be a beneficial option for an add-on therapy. Randomized trials are warranted to confirm the results of the current observational studies.


Atorvastatin; Enoxaparin,COVID-19,SARS-CoV-2; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; Mortality; Propensity Score


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