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Review Article

Therapeutic Chemoresistance in Ovarian Cancer: Emerging Hallmarks, Signaling Mechanisms and Alternative Pathways


Sumera Zaib, Hira Javed, Nehal Rana, Zainab Zaib, Shahid Iqbal and Imtiaz Khan*   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )


Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of mortality and the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among females. It may arise from atypical borderline tumors (Type I) or serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (Type II). The diagnosis of cancer at its early stages is difficult because of non-specific symptoms, most patients are diagnosed at the advanced stage. Several drugs and therapeutic strategies are available to treat ovarian cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy, neoadjuvant therapy, and maintenance therapy. However, the cancer cells have developed resistance to a number of available therapies causing treatment failure. This emerging chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells is becoming an obstacle due to alterations in multiple cellular processes. These processes involve altered drug target response, drug pumps, detoxification systems, lower sensitivity to apoptosis, and altered proliferation, and are responsible for developing resistance to anticancer medicines. Various research reports have evidenced that these altered processes might play a role in the emergence of resistance. This review addresses the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of ovarian cancer resistance and covers sophisticated alternative pathways to overcome these resistance mechanisms in patients.


Chemoresistance, ovarian cancer, platinum resistance, nuclear-erythroid-related factor-2, chemosensitization.


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