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Synthesis and Biological Evaluations of Granulatamide B and its Structural Analogues


Dario Matulja, Petra Grbčić, Gabrijela Matijević, Sanja Babić, Krunoslav Bojanić, Sylvain Laclef, Valerije Vrček, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić and Dean Marković*   Pages 1 - 25 ( 25 )


Background: While granulatamides A and B have been previously isolated, their biological activities have been only partially examined. The aim of this study was to synthesize granulatamide B (4b), a tryptamine-derivative naturally occurring in Eunicella coral species, using the well-known procedure of Sun and Fürstner and its 12 structural analogues by modifying the side chain, which differs in length, degree of saturation as well as number and conjugation of double bonds.

Method: The prepared library of compounds underwent comprehensive assessment for their biological activities, encompassing antioxidative, antiproliferative, and antibacterial properties, in addition to in vivo toxicity evaluation using a Zebrafish model. Compound 4i, which consists of a retinoic acid moiety, exhibited the strongest scavenging activity against ABTS radicals (IC50 = 36 ± 2 μM). In addition, 4b and some of the analogues (4a, 4c and 4i), mostly containing an unsaturated chain and conjugated double bonds, showed moderate but non-selective activity with certain IC50 values in the range of 20-40 μM.

Result: In contrast, the analogue 4l, a derivative of alpha-linolenic acid, was the least toxic towards normal cell lines. Moreover, 4b was also highly active against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis with an MIC of 125 μM. Nevertheless, both 4b and 4i, known for the best-observed effects, caused remarkable developmental abnormalities in the zebrafish model Danio rerio.

Conclusion: Since modification of the side chain did not significantly alter the change in biological activities compared to the parent compound, granulatamide B (4b), the substitution of the indole ring needs to be considered. Our group is currently carrying out new syntheses focusing on the functionalization of the indole core.


Granulatamide B, N-fatty acyl derivatives, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antibacterial, embryotoxicity.


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