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Analysis and Validation of Tyrosine Metabolism-related Prognostic Features for Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Therapy


Zhongfeng Cui, Chunli Liu, Hongzhi Li, Juan Wang and Guangming Li*   Pages 1 - 21 ( 21 )


Aims: To explore tyrosine metabolism-related characteristics in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) and to establish a risk signature for the prognostic prediction of LIHC. Novel prognostic signatures contribute to the mining of novel biomarkers, which are essential for the construction of a precision medicine system for LIHC and the improvement of survival.

Background: Tyrosine metabolism plays a critical role in the initiation and development of LIHC. Based on the tyrosine metabolism-related characteristics in LIHC, this study developed a risk signature to improve the prognostic prediction of patients with LIHC.

Objective: To investigate the correlation between tyrosine metabolism and progression of LIHC and to develop a tyrosine metabolism-related prognostic model.

Methods: Gene expression and clinicopathological information of LIHC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Distinct subtypes of LIHC were classified by performing consensus cluster analysis on the tyrosine metabolism-related genes. Univariate and Lasso Cox regression were used to develop a RiskScore prognosis model. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis with log-rank test and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were employed in the prognostic evaluation and prediction validation. Immune infiltration, tyrosine metabolism score, and pathway enrichment were evaluated using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA). Finally, a nomogram model was developed with the RiskScore and other clinicopathological features.

Results: Based on the tyrosine metabolism genes in the TCGA cohort, we identified 3 tyrosine metabolism-related subtypes showing significant prognostic differences. Four candidate genes selected from the common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 3 subtypes were used to develop a RiskScore model, which could effectively divide LIHC patients into high- and lowrisk groups. In both the training and validation sets, high-risk patients tended to have worse overall survival, less active immunotherapy response, higher immune infiltration and clinical grade, and higher oxidative, fatty, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the RiskScore was an independent indicator for the prognosis of LIHC. The results from pan-- cancer analysis also supported that the RiskScore had a strong prognostic performance in other cancers. The nomogram demonstrated that the RiskScore contributed the most to the prediction of LIHC prognosis.

Conclusion: Our study developed a tyrosine metabolism-related risk model that performed well in survival prediction, showing the potential to serve as an independent prognostic predictor for LIHC treatment.


Liver hepatocellular carcinoma, LIHC, tyrosine metabolism, riskscore model, prognosis of liver cancer.


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