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HDACs and HDAC Inhibitors in Urothelial Carcinoma – Perspectives for an Antineoplastic Treatment

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 37 ]

Author(s):

Maria Pinkerneil, Michele J. Hoffmann, Wolfgang A. Schulz and Gunter Niegisch*   Pages 4151 - 4165 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Histone deacetylases (HDACs) influence diverse cellular processes and may contribute to tumor development and progression by multiple mechanisms. Class I HDACs are often overexpressed in cancers contributing to a genome-wide epigenetic state permitting increased proliferation, and diminished apoptosis and cell differentiation. Class IIA and IIB isoenzymes may likewise contribute to tumorigenesis as components of specific intranuclear repressor complexes or regulators of posttranslational protein modifications. As HDAC inhibitors may counteract these tumorigenic effects several of these compounds are currently tested in clinical trials.

HDAC inhibitors are also considered for urothelial carcinoma, where novel therapeutic drugs are urgently required. However, only modest antineoplastic activity has been observed with isoenzyme-unspecific pan-HDAC inhibitors. Therefore, inhibition of specific HDAC isoenzymes might be more efficacious and tumor-specific. Here, we systematically review knowledge on the expression, function and suitability as therapeutic targets of the 11 classical HDACs in UC. Overall, the class I HDACs HDAC1 and HDAC2 are the most promising targets for antineoplastic treatment. In contrast, targeting HDAC8 and HDAC6 is likely to be of minor relevance in urothelial carcinoma. Class IIA HDACs like HDAC4 require further study, since their downregulation rather than upregulation could be involved in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis.

Keywords:

Urothelial carcinoma, bladder cancer, HDACSs, HDAC inhibitors, class I HDACs, targeted therapy.

Affiliation:

Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Dusseldorf, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Dusseldorf, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Dusseldorf, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Dusseldorf

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