Krishnadas Nandagopal, Mihir Halder, Biswabhusan Dash, Sanghamitra Nayak and Sumita Jha* Pages 4693 - 4717 ( 25 )
Secondary metabolites from numerous plant sources have been developed as anti- cancer reagents and compounds such as resveratrol, podophyllotoxin and zerumbone are of particular importance in this regard. Since their de novo chemical synthesis is both arduous and commercially expensive, there has been an impetus to develop viable, biotechnological methods of production. Accordingly, this review focuses on the recent developments in the field, highlighting the use of micropropagation, cell suspension cultures, callus cultures, hairy root cultures, recombinant microbes and genetically modified higher plants. Optimization of media and culture conditions, precursor feeding, immobilization and the use of chemical or physical elicitation in various protocols has led to an increase in resveratrol and podophyllotoxin production. Heterologous gene transformation of higher plants with stilbene synthase derived from Arachis hypogaea or Vitis vinifera lead to resveratrol production with the concomitant increase in resistance to plant pathogens. Interestingly, genetic transformation of Podophyllum hexandrum and Linum flavum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in Ri-T-DNA gene(s)-mediated enhancement of podophyllotoxin production. Zerumbone yields from tissue cultured plantlets or from suspension cultures are generally low and these methods require further optimization. In microbes lacking the native resveratrol or zerumbone biosynthesis pathway, metabolic engineering required not only the introduction of several genes of the pathway, but also precursor feeding and optimization of gene expression to increase their production. Data pertaining to safety and toxicity testing are needed prior to use of these sources of anti-cancer compounds in therapy.
Resveratrol, podophyllotoxin, zerumbone, anti-cancer agents, metabolic engineering, cell suspension culture, elicitation, hairy root culture.
Department of Genetics, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019, Centre of Biotechnology, Siksha O Anusandhan University; Bhubaneswar- 751003, Odisha, Centre of Biotechnology, Siksha O Anusandhan University; Bhubaneswar- 751003, Odisha, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019