P.M. Biava*, F. Burigana, R. Germano, P. Kurian*, C. Verzegnassi and G. Vitiello Pages 988 - 1001 ( 14 )
A long history of research has pursued the use of embryonic factors isolated during cell differentiation processes for the express purpose of transforming cancer cells back to healthy phenotypes. Recent results have clarified that the substances present at different stages of cell differentiation—which we call stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs)—are proteins with low molecular weight and nucleic acids that regulate genomic expression. The present review summarizes how these substances, taken at different stages of cellular maturation, are able to retard proliferation of many human tumor cell lines and thereby reprogram cancer cells to healthy phenotypes. The model presented here is a quantum field theory (QFT) model in which SCDSFs are able to trigger symmetry breaking processes during cancer development. These symmetry breaking processes, which lie at the root of many phenomena in elementary particle physics and condensed matter physics, govern the phase transitions of totipotent cells to higher degrees of diversity and order, resulting in cell differentiation. In cancers, which share many genomic and metabolic similarities with embryonic stem cells, stimulated redifferentiation often signifies the phenotypic reversion back to health and nonproliferation. In addition to acting on key components of the cellular cycle, SCDSFs are able to reprogram cancer cells by delicately influencing the cancer microenvironment, modulating the electrochemistry and thus the collective electrodynamic behaviors between dipole networks in biomacromolecules and the interstitial water field. Coherent effects in biological water, which are derived from a dissipative QFT framework, may offer new diagnostic and therapeutic targets at a systemic level, before tumor instantiation occurs in specific tissues or organs. Thus, by including the environment as an essential component of our model, we may push the prevailing paradigm of mutation-driven oncogenesis toward a closer description of reality.
Stem cells, cancer stem cells, embryo, cell differentiation, cancer cell reprogramming, genetic and epigenetic landscape, phenotypic reversion, quantum field theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, electrodynamics, electromagnetic, microenvironment, aromatic networks, water dipole field, coherent water, exclusion zones, fractallike self-similarity.
Scientific Institute of Research and Care Multimedica, Via Milanese 300 Sesto S. G., Milano, Associazione Medicina e Complessita, Trieste, PROMETE_CNR Spin off, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 45, Napoli, Quantum Biology Laboratory, Howard University, Washington, DC, Politecnico di Ingegneria e Architettura, Universita di Udine, Udine, Italy and Associazione Medicina e Complessita, Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica