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Looking for New Antifungal Drugs from Flavonoids: Impact of the Genetic Diversity of Candida albicans on the in-vitro Response

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 27 ]

Author(s):

Maria Rosa Felice, Letterio Giuffre, Lamya El Aamri, Majida Hafidi, Giuseppe Criseo, Orazio Romeo* and Fabio Scordino   Pages 5108 - 5123 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Background: In an era in which antimicrobial resistance is increasing at an alarming pace, it is very important to find new antimicrobial agents effective against pathogenic microrganisms resistant to traditional treatments. Among the notable breakthroughs in the past years of research in natural-drug discovery, there is the identification and testing of flavonoids, a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many beneficial effects on humans. These compounds show different biological activities such as inhibition of neuroinflammation and tumor growth as well as antimicrobial activity against many microbial pathogens.

Methods: We undertook a review of protocols and standard strains used in studies reporting the inhibitory effects of flavonoids against Candida albicans by focusing our attention on genetic characterization of the strains examined. Moreover, using the C. albicans MLST-database, we performed a phylogenetic analysis showing the genetic variation occurring in this species.

Results: Today, we have enough information to estimate genetic diversity within microbial species and recent data revealed that most of fungal pathogens show complex population structures in which not a single isolate can be designated as representative of the entire taxon. This is especially true for the highly divergent fungal pathogen C. albicans, in which the assumption that one or few “standard strains” can represent the whole species is overly unrealistic and should be laid to rest.

Conclusion: The goal of this article is to shed light on the extent of genetic variation in C. albicans and how this phenomenon can largely influence the activity of flavonoids against this species.

Keywords:

Flavonoids, natural compounds, plant extract, antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, multi-locus sequence typing, antifungals, genotypes.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Veterinary Sciences, Division of Animal Production, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Biology, Moulay Ismail University, Faculty of Sciences, Zitoune Meknes, Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Health Care (IRCCS) - Centro Neurolesi "Bonino- Pulejo", Messina



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