Johan G. Schnitzler, Geesje M. Dallinga-Thie* and Jeffrey Kroon* Pages 1594 - 1609 ( 16 )
Over the last century, many studies have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a key risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to atherosclerosis. Thus, for these CVD patients, LDL lowering agents are commonly used in the clinic to reduce the risk for CVD. LDL, upon modification, will develop distinct inflammatory and proatherogenic potential, leading to impaired endothelial integrity, influx of immune cells and subsequent increased foam cell formation. LDL can also directly affect peripheral monocyte composition, rendering them in a more favorable position to migrate and accumulate in the subendothelial space. It has become apparent that other lipoprotein particles, such as triglyceride- rich lipoproteins or remnants (TRL) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] may also impact on atherogenic pathways. Evidence is accumulating that Lp(a) can promote peripheral monocyte activation, eventually leading to increased transmigration through the endothelium. Similarly, remnant cholesterol has been identified to play a key role in endothelial dysfunction and monocyte behavior. In this review, we will discuss recent developments in understanding the role of different lipoproteins in the context of inflammation at both the level of the monocyte and the endothelium.
Lipoproteins, apoB, Lp(a), oxidized phospholipids, remnants, atherogenesis, monocytes, endothelial cells.
Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam