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Circulating Biomarkers for Tumor Angiogenesis: Where Are We?

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 14 ]

Author(s):

Virginia Di Paolo, Marta Colletti, Valentina Ferruzzi, Ida Russo, Angela Galardi, Iside Alessi , Giuseppe Maria Milano and Angela Di Giannatale*   Pages 2361 - 2380 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Background: In recent years, several anti-angiogenic drugs have been developed and their addition to standard treatment has been associated with clinical benefits. However, the response to anti-angiogenic therapy is characterized by considerable variability. In this context, the development of dynamic non-invasive biomarkers would be helpful to elucidate the emergence of anti-angiogenic resistance as well as to correctly address the treatment.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to describe current reports on circulating diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers related to angiogenesis. We further discuss how this non-invasive strategy could improve the monitoring of tumor treatment and help clinical strategy.

Results: We discuss the latest evidence in the literature regarding circulating anti-angiogenic markers. Besides growth factor proteins, different circulating miRNAs could exert a pro- or anti-angiogenic activity so as to represent suitable candidates for a non-invasive strategy. Recent reports indicate that tumor-derived exosomes, which are small membrane vesicles abundant in biological fluids, also have an impact on vascular remodeling.

Conclusion: Numerous circulating biomarkers related to angiogenesis have been recently identified. Their use will allow identifying patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific anti-angiogenic treatment, as well as detecting those who will develop resistance and/or adverse effects. Nonetheless, further studies are required to elucidate the role of these biomarkers in clinical settings.

Keywords:

Biomarkers, tumor angiogenesis, exosomes, micro-RNAs, proteins, anti-angiogenic therapy.

Affiliation:

Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome, Department of Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Piazza di Sant'Onofrio, 4-00165 Rome



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