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Peripheral Immunity, Immunoaging and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s Disease

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 20 ]


Natasa Kustrimovic, Franca Marino and Marco Cosentino*   Pages 3719 - 3753 ( 35 )


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder among elderly population, characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. To date, exact cause remains unknown and the mechanism of neurons death uncertain. It is typically considered as a disease of central nervous system (CNS). Nevertheless, numerous evidence has been accumulated in several past years testifying undoubtedly about the principal role of neuroinflammation in progression of PD. Neuroinflammation is mainly associated with presence of activated microglia in brain and elevated levels of cytokine levels in CNS. Nevertheless, active participation of immune system as well has been noted, such as, elevated levels of cytokine levels in blood, the presence of auto antibodies, and the infiltration of T cell in CNS. Moreover, infiltration and reactivation of those T cells could exacerbate neuroinflammation to greater neurotoxic levels. Hence, peripheral inflammation is able to prime microglia into pro-inflammatory phenotype, which can trigger stronger response in CNS further perpetuating the on-going neurodegenerative process.

In the present review, the interplay between neuroinflammation and the peripheral immune response in the pathobiology of PD will be discussed. First of all, an overview of regulation of microglial activation and neuroinflammation is summarized and discussed. Afterwards, we try to collectively analyze changes that occurs in peripheral immune system of PD patients, suggesting that these peripheral immune challenges can exacerbate the process of neuroinflammation and hence the symptoms of the disease. In the end, we summarize some of proposed immunotherapies for treatment of PD.


Parkinson's disease, neuroinflammation, peripheral immunity, alpha-synuclein, immunoaging, immunomodulation.


Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, Varese, Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, Varese, Center of Research in Medical Pharmacology, University of Insubria, Varese

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