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Current Challenges in the Development of Vaccines and Drugs Against Emerging Vector-borne Diseases

[ Vol. 26 , Issue. 16 ]

Author(s):

Kwang-sun Kim*   Pages 2974 - 2986 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Vectors are living organisms that transmit infectious diseases from an infected animal to humans or another animal. Biological vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sand flies carry pathogens that multiply within their bodies prior to delivery to a new host. The increased prevalence of Vector-Borne Diseases (VBDs) such as Aedes-borne dengue, Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), malaria, Tick-Borne Disease (TBD), and scrub typhus has a huge impact on the health of both humans and livestock worldwide. In particular, zoonotic diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks place a considerable burden on public health. Vaccines, drugs, and vector control methods have been developed to prevent and treat VBDs and have prevented millions of deaths. However, development of such strategies is falling behind the rapid emergence of VBDs. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to fighting VBDs must be considered immediately. In this review, I focus on the challenges posed by emerging outbreaks of VBDs and discuss available drugs and vaccines designed to overcome this burden. Research into promising drugs needs to be upgraded and fast-tracked, and novel drugs or vaccines being tested in in vitro and in vivo models need to be moved into human clinical trials. Active preventive tactics, as well as new and upgraded diagnostics, surveillance, treatments, and vaccination strategies, need to be monitored constantly if we are to manage VBDs of medical importance.

Keywords:

Biological vector, Vector-Borne Disease (VBD), outbreaks, vaccine, clinical trial, drug.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 46241



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