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Endothelium as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetes Mellitus: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Practice

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 7 ]

Author(s):

Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Evangelia Tzeravini, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Stavroula A. Paschou, Gerasimos Siasos and Nikolaos Tentolouris*   Pages 1089 - 1131 ( 43 )

Abstract:


Endothelium plays an essential role in human homeostasis by regulating arterial blood pressure, distributing nutrients and hormones as well as providing a smooth surface that modulates coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction is present in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and contributes to the development and progression of macrovascular disease, while it is also associated with most of the microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia are the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. Regarding antidiabetic medication, metformin, gliclazide, pioglitazone, exenatide and dapagliflozin exert a beneficial effect on Endothelial Function (EF); glimepiride and glibenclamide, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and liraglutide have a neutral effect, while studies examining the effect of insulin analogues, empagliflozin and canagliflozin on EF are limited. In terms of lipid-lowering medication, statins improve EF in subjects with DM, while data from short-term trials suggest that fenofibrate improves EF; ezetimibe also improves EF but further studies are required in people with DM. The effect of acetylsalicylic acid on EF is dose-dependent and lower doses improve EF while higher ones do not. Clopidogrel improves EF, but more studies in subjects with DM are required. Furthermore, angiotensin- converting-enzyme inhibitors /angiotensin II receptor blockers improve EF. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors improve EF locally in the corpus cavernosum. Finally, cilostazol exerts favorable effect on EF, nevertheless, more data in people with DM are required.

Keywords:

Endothelium, diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, antidiabetic medication, lipid-lowering medication, antiplatelet medication, antihypertensive medication.

Affiliation:

Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, First Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Diabetes Center, 1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens



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