Cristina Agresti, Rosella Mechelli, Stefania Olla, Caterina Veroni, Cecilia Eleuteri, Giovanni Ristori* and Marco Salvetti* Pages 2095 - 2105 ( 11 )
Background: MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration, with a complex and still to be clarified aetiology. Several data, coming from patients' samples and from animal models, show that Oxidative Status (OS) plays an important role in MS pathogenesis. Overproduction of reactive oxidative species by macrophages/microglia can bring about cellular injury and ensuing cell death by oxidizing cardinal cellular components. Oxidized molecules are present in active MS lesions and are associated with neurodegeneration.Methods: We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature focusing on OS in MS. The contents of the selected papers were described in the context of a conceptual framework. A special emphasis was given to the results of our study in the field. Results: The results of our three recent studies were put in the context and discussed taking into account the literature on the topic. Oxidative damage underpinned an imbalance shared by MS and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. In people with clinically isolated syndrome (an early phase of MS) oxidative stress proved to contribute to disease pathophysiology and to provide biomarkers that may help predict disease evolution. A drug screening platform based on multiple assays to test the remyelinating potential of library of approved compounds showed two anti-oxidants, edaravone and 5-methyl-7- methoxyisoflavone, as active drugs. Moreover, an analysis of 'structure activity relationship' showed off-targets sites of these compounds that accounted for their remyelinating activity, irrespective of their antioxidant action. Conclusion: Overall, edaravone emerges as a candidate to treat complex disease such as MS, where inflammation, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration contribute to disease progression, together or individually, in different phases and disease types. Furthermore, approaches based on drug repositioning seem to maintain the promise of helping discover novel treatment for complex diseases, where molecular targets are largely unknown.
Edaravone, antioxidant drug, multiple sclerosis, oxidative status, remyelination, chronic inflammatory disease.
Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Department of Human Science and Promotion of Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Monserrato, Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Centre for Experimental Neurological Therapies (CENTERS), Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University, Rome, Centre for Experimental Neurological Therapies (CENTERS), Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University, Rome