Alexandros Briasoulis*, Chakradhari Inampudi, Georgios Hatzis and Rabea Asleh Pages 1 - 14 ( 14 )
Hospitalization rates and survival of patients with heart failure (HF) have improved. However, 5-year mortality rates remain high and the prevalence of the disease is rising likely due to aging of the population and advances in diagnosis and treatment of other acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Over the past three decades the therapeutic armamentarium of heart failure has improved substantially with development of medications targeting neuro-hormonal activation and devices preventing sudden cardiac death and improving cardiac synchrony. Recently, inhibition of angiotensin receptors and neprilysin as well as sinoatrial pacemaker modulating f-current, have been found safe and effective strategies that improve HF hospitalization rates and/or mortality. Antidiabetic agents inhibiting sodium–glucose co-transporters 2, result in natriuresis and osmotic diuresis and may further improve HF related outcomes. Furthermore, emerging therapies such as cardiac myosin activators, soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are undergoing investigation in phase II and III studies of HF patients. Finally, rapid evolution of in the management of advanced HF has occurred with the application of second and third generation continuous flow left ventricular assist devices in clinical practice. Ongoing clinical studies will validate the safety and efficacy of emerging therapeutic strategies in HF population under-represented in previous clinical trials.
heart failure, neprylysin inhibitor, ivabradin, left ventricular assist device, novel therapy, sinoatrial pacemaker
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Section of Heart Failure and Transplant, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota