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Genetic Markers of the Host to Predict the Efficacy of Colorectal Cancer Targeted Therapy

Author(s):

Elena De Mattia, Alessia Bignucolo, Giuseppe Toffoli and Erika Cecchin*   Pages 1 - 23 ( 23 )

Abstract:


The introduction of anti-EGFR (cetuximab and panitumumab) and antiangiogenic (bevacizumab, regorafeninb, ramucirumab, and aflibercept) agents in the therapeutic armamentarium of the metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly improved the therapy efficacy and patients survival. However, despite the great improvements achieved in the patients life expectation, the high inter-individual heterogeneity in the response to the targeted agents still represent an issue for the management of advanced CRC patients. Even if the role of tumor genetic mutations as predictive markers of drug efficacy has been well-established, the contribution of the host genetic markers is still controversial. Promising results regard the germ-line immune-profile, inflammation and tumor microenvironment. Inherent variations in KRAS 3’UTR region as well as EGF/ EGFR genes were investigated as markers of cetuximab effectiveness. More recently interesting data in the field of anti-EGFR agents were generated also for germ-line variants in genes involved in inflammation (e.g. COX-2, LIFR, IGF1 signaling), immune system (e,g, FCGRs, IL-1RA), and other players of the RAS signaling, including the Hippo pathway related genes (e.g. Rassf, YAP, TAZ). Host genetic variants in VEGF-dependent (i.e., EGF, IGF-1, HIF1α, eNOS, iNOS) and -independent (i.e., EMT cascade, EGFL7) pathways, with specific attention on inflammation and immune system-related factors (e.g., IL-8, CXCR-1/2, CXCR4-CXCL12 axis, TLRs, GADD34, PPP1R15A, ANXA11, MKNK1), were investigated as predictive markers of bevacizumab outcome, generating some promising results. In this review we aimed to summarize the most recent literature data regarding the potential role of common and rare inhered variants in predicting which CRC patients will benefit more from a specific targeted drug administration.

Keywords:

targeted agents; antiangiogenic molecules; bevacizumab; anti-EGFR agents; cetuximab; pharmacogenetic; polymorphism; inflammation; metastatic colorectal cancer

Affiliation:

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, �Centro di Riferimento Oncologico�- National Cancer Institute, via Franco Gallini 2, 33081, Aviano (PN), Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, �Centro di Riferimento Oncologico�- National Cancer Institute, via Franco Gallini 2, 33081, Aviano (PN), Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, �Centro di Riferimento Oncologico�- National Cancer Institute, via Franco Gallini 2, 33081, Aviano (PN), Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, �Centro di Riferimento Oncologico�- National Cancer Institute, via Franco Gallini 2, 33081, Aviano (PN) �Italy. Pordenone



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