Geir Bjorklund *, Lyudmila Pivina, Maryam Dadar, Yulia Semenova and Jan Aaseth Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )
The concentrations of metals in the environment is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in various countries because of human activities. They can enter the food chain and bioaccumulate in soft and hard tissues/organs, often with a long half-life of the metal in the body. Metal exposure has a negative impact on bone health and may result in osteoporosis and increased fracture risk depending on concentration and duration of metal exposure and metal species. Bones are a long-term repository for lead and some other metals, and may approximately contain 90% of the total body burden in birds and mammals. The present review focuses on the most common metals found in contaminated areas (mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, iron, and aluminum) and their effects on bone tissue, considering the possibility of long-term bone accumulation, and also some differences that might exist between different age groups in the whole population.
Metal concentration, metal intoxication, bone, osteoporosis
Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Semey Medical University, Semey, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Semey Medical University, Semey, 7 - Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal