Iswary Letchumanan, M.K. Md Arshad and Subash C.B. Gopinath* Pages 1 - 17 ( 17 )
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among men and women. According to the World Health Organization, ischemic heart disease is the major issue among the population due to narrowing of the coronary artery by the plaque formation on the artery wall and causes an inadequate flow of oxygen and blood to the heart, called ‘coronary artery disease’. Consequently, the death rate due to CVD has increased to 15 % in 2016 as compared to the past decade (on 2006), by 2016 it was ~17.6 million. This tremendous increment urges the development of a suitable biomarker for the rapid and early diagnosis. Currently, C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered as an outstanding biomarker among clinical researches for its quick and accurate outcome. Many techniques are used to diagnose cardiovascular disease, which include surface plasmon resonance, colorimetric assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluoro-immunoassays, chemiluminescent and by the electrical measurements. This review discusses these strategies and how current cutting-edge technologies enabled that development of high-performance detection methodologies. Concluding remarks have been made with the clinical significance and the usage of nanomaterial in medical diagnostics towards nanotheranostics.
Cardiovascular disease, C-Reactive protein, Biosensor, Clinical biomarker, Nanomaterial, High-performance detection
Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis