Maria V. Deligiorgi*, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis, Gerasimos Siasos and Dimitrios T. Trafalis Pages 1 - 24 ( 24 )
Beyond being epiphenomenon of shared epidemiological factors, the integration of osteoporosis (OP) with cardiovascular disease (CVD)− termed "calcification paradox"− reflects a continuum of aberrant cardiometabolic status. The present review provides background knowledge on "calcification paradox", focusing on the endocrine aspect of vasculature orchestrated by the osteoblastic molecular fingerprint of vascular cells, acquired via imbalance among established modulators of mineralization. Osteoprotegerin (OPG)–the well-established osteoprotective cytokine−has recently been shown to exert a vessel-modifying role. Prompted by this notion, the present review interrogates OPG as the potential missing link between OP and CVD. However, so far, the confirmation of this hypothesis is hindered by the equivocal role of OPG in CVD, being both proatherosclerotic and antiatherosclerotic. Further research is needed to illuminate whether OPG could be a biomarker of the "calcification paradox". Moreover, the present review brings into prominence the dual role of statins−cardioprotective and osteoprotective− as a potential illustration of the integration of CVD with OP. Considering that the statins- induced modulation of OPG is central to the statins-driven osteoprotective signalling, statins could be suggested as an illustration of the role of OPG in the bone/vessels crosstalk, if further studies consolidate the contribution of OPG to the cardioprotective role of statins. Another outstanding issue that merits further evaluation is the inconsistency of the osteoprotective role of statins. Further understanding of the varying bone-modifying role of statins, likely attributed to the unique profile of different classes of statins defined by distinct physicochemical characteristics, may yield tangible benefits for treating simultaneously OP and CVD.
Osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, osteoprotegerin, “calcification paradox”, statins.
Department of Pharmacology – Clinical Pharmacology Unit, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Building 16, 1st Floor, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527-Goudi, Athens, Department of Applied Sciences, Group of Translational Biosciences, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Ellison Building A516, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, 1st Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Department of Pharmacology – Clinical Pharmacology Unit, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Building 16, 1st Floor, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527-Goudi, Athens