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The Emerging Roles of Exosomes in the Chemoresistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Jie Zhang , Qianqian Song, Mengna Wu and Wenjie Zheng*   Pages 93 - 109 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common gastrointestinal malignancy with a leading incidence of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite the progress of treatment options, there remains low efficacy for patients with intermediate-advanced HCC, due to tumor metastasis, recurrence and chemoresistance. Increasing evidence suggests that exosomes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), along with other extracellular vesicles (EVs) and cytokines, contribute to the drug chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Exosomes, the intercellular communicators in various biological activities, have shown to play important roles in HCC progression. This review summarizes the underlying associations between exosomes and chemoresistance of HCC cells. The exosomes derived from distinct cell types mediate the drug resistance by regulating drug efflux, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, autophagic phenotypes, as well as the immune response. In summary, TME-related exosomes can be a potential target to reverse chemoresistance and a candidate biomarker of drug efficacy in HCC patients.

Keywords:

Hepatocellular carcinoma, chemoresistance, exosome, tumor microenvironment, epithelialmesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu, Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, One Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, 27157 NC, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu, Research Center of Clinical Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xisi Road, 226001 Nantong, Jiangsu



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