Geir Bjørklund*, Nagwa A. Meguid, Maryam Dadar, Lyudmila Pivina, Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska, Jan Aaseth, Max Stanley Chartrand, Mostafa I. Waly, Yahya Al-Farsi, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Joeri J. Pen and Salvatore Chirumbolo Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )
As a major neurodevelopmental disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses deficits in communication and repetitive and restricted interests or behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Its etiology may come from either a genetic, epigenetic, neurological, hormonal, or an environmental cause, generating pathways that often altogether play a synergistic role in the development of ASD pathogenesis. Furthermore, the metabolic origin of ASD should be important as well. A balanced diet consisting of the essential and special nutrients, alongside the recommended caloric intake, is highly recommended to promote growth and development that withstands the physiologic and behavioral challenges experienced by ASD children. In this review paper, we evaluated many studies that show a relationship between ASD and diet to develop a better understanding of the specific effects of overall diet and the individual nutrients required for this population. This review will add a comprehensive update of knowledge in the field and shed light on the possible nutritional deficiencies, metabolic impairments (particularly in the gut microbiome), and malnutrition in individuals with ASD, which should be recognized in order to maintain improved socio-behavioral habit and physical health.
Autism, Diet, Genetic, Environmental Stressors, Epigenetic Stressors, Gluten, Casein
Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Department of Research on Children with Special Needs, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Semey Medical University, Semey, Department of Chemistry, Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Department of Chemistry, Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, DigiCare Behavioral Research, Casa Grande, AZ, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Diabetes Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona