Afshin Samadi, Suna Sabuncuoglu, Mahshid Samadi, Selen Yilmaz Isikhan, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Massimiliano Peana, Incilay Lay, Ahmet Yalcinkaya and Geir Bjørklund* Pages 110 - 136 ( 27 )
The present review aims to provide a complete and comprehensive summary of current literature relevant to oxysterols and related diseases. Oxidation of cholesterol leads to the formation of a large number of oxidized products, generally known as oxysterols. They are intermediates in the biosynthesis of bile acids, steroid hormones, and 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3. Although oxysterols are considered as metabolic intermediates, there is a growing body of evidence that many of them are bioactive, and their absence or excess may be part of the cause of a disease phenotype. These compounds derive from either enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. This study provides comprehensive information about the structures, formation, and types of oxysterols even when involved in certain disease states, focusing on their effects on metabolism and linkages with these diseases. The role of specific oxysterols as mediators in various disorders, such as degenerative (age-related) and cancer-related disorders, has now become clearer. Oxysterol levels may be employed as suitable markers for the diagnosis of specific diseases or in predicting the incidence rate of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoporosis, lung cancer, breast cancer, and infertility. However, further investigations may be required to confirm these mentioned possibilities.
Oxysterol, cholesterol, molecular targets, disease, pathophysiology, hydroxycholesterol, cholesterol excretion pathways.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Vocational Higher School of Social Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana