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Implications of VIP and PACAP in Parkinson’s Disease: What do we Know So Far?


Filipe Resende Oliveira de Souza, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro* and Patricia Maria d' Almeida Lima   Pages 1 - 12 ( 12 )


Background: Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and, although its etiology remains not yet fully understood, neuroinflammation has been pointed as a key factor for the progres-sion of the disease. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenilate-cyclase activating polypeptide are two neuropeptides that exhibit antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties, modulating the production of cyto-kines and chemokines and the behaviour of immune cells. However, the role of chemokines and cytokines modu-lated by the endogenous receptors of the peptides vary according to the stage of the disease.

Methods: Overview of the relationship between some cytokines and chemokines with vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and their endogenous receptors in the context of Parkinson’s disease neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, as well as the modulation of microglial cells by the peptides in this context.

Results: The two peptides exhibit neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties in models of Parkinson’s dis-ease, as they ameliorate cognitive functions, decrease the levels of neuroinflammation and promote dopaminergic neuronal survival. The peptides have been tested in a variety of in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson’s disease, demonstrating potential for therapeutic application.

Conclusion: More studies are needed to stablish the clinical use of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary ade-nylate cyclase activating polypeptide as safe candidates for treating Parkinson’s disease, as the use of the peptides in different stages of the disease could produce different results concerning effectiveness.


VIP, PACAP, Parkinson’s disease, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, peptides


Federal University of São João Del Rei Department of Natural Sciences, Praça Dom Helvécio, n. 74, Fábricas, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Federal University of São João Del Rei, Department of Natural Sciences, Praça Dom Helvécio, n. 74, Fábricas

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