Geir Bjørklund*, Torsak Tippairote, Maryam Dadar, Fernando Lizcano, Jan Aaseth and Olga Borisova Pages 1 - 19 ( 19 )
The obesity and the associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were globally increasing in their prevalence. While the modern-day lifestyle required less ventilation of metabolic energy through muscular activities, this lifestyle transition also provided the unlimited accession to foods around the clock, which prolonged the daily eating period of foods that contained high calorie and high glycemic load. These situations promoted the high continuous flux of carbon substrate availability in mitochondria and induced the indecisive bioenergetic switches. The disrupted bioenergetic milieu increased the uncoupling respiration due to the excess flow of the substrate-derived reducing equivalents and reduced ubiquinones into the respiratory chain. The diversion of the uncoupling proton gradient through adipocyte thermogenesis was then alleviating the damaging effects of free radicals to mitochondria and other organelles. The adaptive induction of white adipose tissues (WAT) to beige adipose tissues (beAT) showed the beneficial effects on glucose oxidation, ROS protection, and mitochondrial function preservation through the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent thermogenesis of beAT. However, the maladaptive stage could eventually initiate with the persistent unhealthy lifestyles. Under this metabolic gridlock, the low oxygen and pro-inflammatory environments promoted the adipose breakdown with sequential metabolic dysregulation, including insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and clinical NCDs progression. There was unlikely that a single intervention could reverse all these complex interactions. The comprehensive protocol that included dietary, nutritional, and all modifiable lifestyle interventions, could be the preferable choice to decelerate, stop, or reverse the NCDs pathophysiologic processes.
obesity, adipocytes, mitochondria, thermogenesis, adaptation, maladaptation, diet, nutrients, lifestyle
Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Doctor of Philosophy Program in Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital and Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University, Odessa