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Growth Factors and Chemokines: A Comparative Functional Approach Between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 23 ]


G. Tettamanti, D. Malagoli, R. Benelli, A. Albini, A. Grimaldi, G. Perletti, D. M. Noonan, M. de Eguileor and E. Ottaviani   Pages 2737 - 2750 ( 14 )


Growth factors and cytokines control and coordinate a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular functions, and are evolutionarily conserved both in vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we focus our attention on the functional phylogenetic aspects of growth factors/cytokines like the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), the Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF), and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). We will also delve into the activites of two chemokine families, interleukin (IL)-8 (or CXCL8) and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2). These molecules have been selected for their involvement in immune responses and wound healing processes, where they mediate and finely regulate various regeneration processes like angiogenesis or fibroplasia, not only in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates.


Growth factors, chemokines, vertebrates, invertebrates, immune response, inflammation, disease


Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

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