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Review Article

Apixaban: Effective and Safe in Preventing Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Renal Failure

[ Vol. 24 , Issue. 34 ]

Author(s):

Francesca Cortese *, Pietro Scicchitano, Michele Gesualdo, Gabriella Ricci , Santa Carbonara, Carlo Franchini , Brigida Immacolata Pia Schiavone , Filomena Corbo and Marco Matteo Ciccone   Pages 3813 - 3827 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Thromboembolic events, principally stroke, represent one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among subjects with atrial fibrillation. Chronic kidney disease determines a further increase of thromboembolic events, bleeding and mortality and complicates the pharmacological management of patients with atrial fibrillation, mainly due to the side effects of antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant drugs with renal excretion. Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant characterized by good bioavailability and renal elimination accounting for only 25%, showing a safety profile and effectiveness in patients with renal impairment.

Objective: In this manuscript, we reviewed literature data on the use of apixaban in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in patients with renal failure, in order to clarify an often-debated topic in clinical practice.

Method: A PubMed search was performed on the terms atrial fibrillation, apixaban and renal failure with the aim of identifying relevant manuscripts, large randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and current guidelines.

Results: Literature data show that apixaban could represent an interesting alternative to warfarin and other selective antagonists of coagulation factors in patients with impaired renal function. About the risk of major bleeding, apixaban appears to be safer than warfarin in the presence of any degree of renal failure.

Conclusion: Apixaban show to be an effective anticoagulant in patients with atrial fibrillation, even superior to warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism regardless of the presence of renal insufficiency. Moreover, Food and Drug Administration allows the use of apixaban in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

Keywords:

Apixaban, atrial fibrillation, bleeding, chronic renal failure, systemic thromboembolism, warfarin.

Affiliation:

Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ, Transplantation, University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Department of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Department of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Department of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari, Section of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Policlinico, Bari



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