Nessar Ahmad Azrakhsh, Patrycja Mensah-glanowska, Kristoffer Sand and Astrid Olsnes Kittang* Pages 5262 - 5277 ( 16 )
Background: Myeloid neoplasms are a diverse group of malignant diseases with different entities and numerous patho-clinical features. They arise from mutated clones of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells which expand by outperforming their normal counterparts. The intracellular signaling profile of cancer cells is the sum of genetic, epigenetic and microenvironmental influences, and the multiple interconnections between different signaling pathways make pharmacological targeting complicated.Objective: To present an overview of known somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the inflammatory signaling pathways affected by them, as well as current efforts to therapeutically modulate this aberrant inflammatory signaling. Methods: In this review, we extensively reviewed and compiled salient information with ClinicalTrials.gov as our source on ongoing studies, and PubMed as our authentic bibliographic source, using a focused review question. Results: Mutations affecting immune signal transduction are present to varying extents in clonal myeloid diseases. While MPN are dominated by a few common mutations, a multitude of different genes can be mutated in MDS and AML. Mutations can also occur in asymptomatic persons, a finding called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Mutations in FLT3, JAK, STAT, CBL and RAS can lead to aberrant immune signaling. Protein kinase inhibitors are entering the clinic and are extensively investigated in clinical trials in MPN, MDS and AML. Conclusion: In summary, this article summarizes recent research on aberrant inflammatory signaling in clonal myeloid diseases and the clinical therapeutic potential of modulation of signal transduction and effector proteins in the affected pathways.
Clonal hematopoiesis, MPN, MDS, MDS/MPN-RS-T, AML, inflammation, immune signaling pathways, targeting.
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Department of Hematology, Jagiellonian University Medical College / University Hospital, Krakow, Clinic of Medicine and Rehabilitation, More and Romsdal Hospital Trust, Alesund, Department of Medicine, Section for Hematology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen