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Review Article

Long-Term Accumulation of Metals in the Skeleton as Related to Osteoporotic Derangements

[ Vol. 27 , Issue. 40 ]


Geir Bjørklund*, Lyudmila Pivina, Maryam Dadar, Yuliya Semenova, Salvatore Chirumbolo and Jan Aaseth   Pages 6837 - 6848 ( 12 )


The concentrations of metals in the environment are still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in various countries because of human activities. They can enter the food chain and bioaccumulate in soft and hard tissues/organs, often with a long half-life of the metal in the body. Metal exposure has a negative impact on bone health and may result in osteoporosis and increased fracture risk depending on concentration and duration of metal exposure and metal species. Bones are a long-term repository for lead and some other metals, and may approximately contain 90% of the total body burden in birds and mammals. The present review focuses on the most common metals found in contaminated areas (mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, iron, and aluminum) and their effects on bone tissue, considering the possibility of the long-term bone accumulation, and also some differences that might exist between different age groups in the whole population.


Metal concentration, metal intoxication, bone, osteoporosis, fracture, human activities.


Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Toften 24, 8610 Mo i Rana, Department of Internal Medicine, Semey Medical University, Semey, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Department of Internal Medicine, Semey Medical University, Semey, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal

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