Ambreen Shoaib, Mohammad Tabish, Shafat Ali, Azher Arafah, Muneeb U Rehman*, Shadma Wahab, Feras M. Al-Marshadh and Summya Rashid
Cancer is a multi-factorial health condition involving uncontrolled cell divisions. The disease has its roots in genetic mutation. This disease affects men, women, and even children. Chemotherapy, photodynamic, photothermal, and hormonal therapies have been used to treat this deadliest disease but a huge percentage of patients have chances of disease recurrence or resistance. Nowadays dysregulation in miRNAs is considered one of the key factors for the development and progression of different types of cancers as they control the expression of genes responsible for cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties have been gaining focus for cancer treatment since they are found more effective in targeting cancer via regulating miRNAs expression. These phytochemicals have no side effects and are readily available at a low cost. Several dietary phytochemicals with regulatory effects on the expression of miRNAs have been reported and include curcumin, diallyl disulphide, 3, 30-diindolylmethane, ellagic acid, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, resveratrol, and sulforaphane. They exert their regulatory effects against different types of cancer either by upregulating or downregulating different cancer signalling pathways and inhibit its progression. Curcumin down-regulates SHH pathways, epigallocatechin-3-gallate regulates the Notch pathway, inhibits TGFβ1/SMAD signalling, resveratrol regulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and carnosic acid-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cell via JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway. The miRNAs are used for the treatment of cancer as essential modulators in cellular pathways. Therefore, identifying the miRNAs and their targets and counter them with specific phytochemicals provides a safe and effective mechanism for the treatment of cancer.
Cancer, phytochemicals, miRNAs, signalling pathways, dietary phytochemicals, targets.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Shaqra 11961, Department of Biochemistry, Govt. Medical College (GMC-Srinagar), Karan Nagar, Srinagar 190010, J&K, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Shaqra University, Shaqra 11961, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy Girls Section, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 173, Al-Kharj 11942