Nina Petrović, Tatjana P. Stanojković and Marina Nikitović*
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed male cancer worldwide. Early diagnosis of PCa, response to therapy and prognosis still represent a challenge. Nearly 60% of PCa patients undergo radiation therapy (RT) which might cause side effects. In spite of numerous researches in this field, predictive biomarkers for radiation toxicity are still not elucidated. MicroRNAs as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression are shown to be changed during and after irradiation. Manipulation with miRNA levels might be used to modulate response to RT-to reverse radioresistance-to induce radiosensitivity, or if needed, to reduce sensitivity to treatment to avoid side effects. In this review we have listed and described miRNAs involved in response to RT in PCa, and highlighted potential candidates for future biological tests predicting radiation response to RT, with the special focus on side effects of RT. Individual radiation response is a result of the interactions between physical characteristics of radiation treatment and biological background of each patient, and miRNA expression changes among others. According to described literature we concluded that let-7, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-155, and members of miR-17/92 cluster might be promising candidates for biological tests predicting radiosensitivity of PCa patients undergoing radiation treatment, and as future agents for modulation of radiation response. Predictive miRNA panels, especially for acute and late side effects of RT can serve as a starting point for decisions for individualized RT planning. We believe that this review might be one step closer to understanding molecular mechanisms underlying individual radiation response of patients with PCa.
MicroRNA, Prostate cancer, Radiotherapy, Radiation response, Radioresistance, Radiosensitivity, Radiotoxicity
Laboratory for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, Department of Health and Environment, “VINČA“ Institute of Nuclear Sciences-National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11001 Belgrade, Department for Experimental Oncology, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade, Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11000 Belgrade