Badar Islam, Mohd Suhail, Mohd Khan, Ajmal Ahmad, Torki Zughaibi, Fohad Husain, Md Tabish Rehman and Shams Tabrez*
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Even a slight decline in mortality has been noted, but the currently available treatment options did not give an expected outcome and are associated with several side effects and a substantial economic burden. The advent of plant-based treatment is because of its ease of use, readily availability, cost-effectiveness, and low/no toxicity. In recent years, flavonoids with their diverse physico-biological properties have gained the scientific community's attention for the treatment of various forms of cancer. Different flavonoids, especially; flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, fisetin, and isorhamnetin), flavanones (hesperidin and naringin), and anthocyanins have shown potent anticancer activities. The role of various signaling cascades in the progression of cancer is also well-documented. Among those, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is widely known to play a significant role in different physio-cellular activities, which triggers malignant transformation and is considered a key target for anticancer compounds. This pathway plays a vital role in regulating the cell cycle, metabolism, survival, and proliferation. The flavonoids exhibit their anticancer activity via different molecular pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR. In the current piece of paper, our focus is to underpin the action of the above-mentioned flavonoids against different cancers, mainly covering in-vitro data, especially through PI3K/Akt/mTOR targeting.
Anthocyanins, cancer prevention, fisetin, flavonols, flavanones, hesperidin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, mTOR, naringin, quercetin
Department of Biochemistry, J N Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Protein Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Department of Opthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589