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Recent Insights into the Nutritional Antioxidant Therapy in Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Vascular Complications: A Comprehensive Review

Author(s):

Narasimha M. Beeraka, Irina K. Tomilova, Galina A. Batrak, Maria V. Zhaburina, Vladimir N. Nikolenko, Mikhail Y. Sinelnikov* and Liudmila M. Mikhaleva   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )

Abstract:


Diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM-induced vascular complications are significant global healthcare problems, causing a decrease in patient quality of life. The main reason for the disability and mortality of patients is rapidly progressing micro-and macroangiopathies. Currently, free radical oxidation is recognized as one of the main mechanisms in the development of DM and associated complications. Under normal physiological conditions, the level of free radicals and antioxidant defense capabilities is balanced. However, imbalance occurs between the antioxidant defense system and pro-oxidants during chronic hyperglycemia and may invoke the formation of excess free radicals, leading to activation of lipid peroxidation and accumulation of highly toxic products of free radical oxidation. This is accompanied by varying degrees of insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in DM patients. Simultaneously with the activation of free radical generation, a decrease in the activity of antioxidant defense factors (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamins C and E) and an acceleration of diabetic complications are seen. Therefore, we hypothesize that antioxidants may play a positive role in the treatment of DM patients to prevent DM-induced vascular complications. However, this has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the potential underlying mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced diabetic complications and the implications of antioxidants in mitigation of DM-induced vascular complications.

Keywords:

Antioxidant preparations, oxidative stress, diabetic vascular complications, diabetes mellitus, mitochondria, neuroprotection.

Affiliation:

Center of Excellence in Regenerative Medicine and Molecular Biology (CEMR), Department of Biochemistry, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research (JSS AHER),Mysuru, Karnataka, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Ivanovo State Medical Academy, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Ivanovo, Center of Excellence in Regenerative Medicine and Molecular Biology (CEMR), Department of Biochemistry, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research (JSS AHER),Mysuru, Karnataka, Center of Excellence in Regenerative Medicine and Molecular Biology (CEMR), Department of Biochemistry, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research (JSS AHER),Mysuru, Karnataka, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow 119146, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow 119146, Research Institute of Human Morphology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow 117418



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