Eftiola Pojani* and Daniela Barlocco Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )
Histone acetylation balance is one epigenetic mechanism controlling gene expression associated with disease progression. It has been observed that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC-10) isozyme contributes to the chemotherapy resistance; in addition, the poor clinical outcome observed in patients with aggressive solid tumors, such as neuroblastoma, has been associated with its overexpression. Moreover, HDAC-10 selective inhibition suppresses the autophagic response, thus providing an improved risk-benefit profile compared to cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy drugs. On these bases, HDAC-10 is becoming an emerging target for drug design. Due to the rapid progress in the development of next-generation HDAC inhibitors, this review article aims to provide an overview on novel selective or dual HDAC-8/10 inhibitors, as new leads for cancer chemotherapy, able to avoid the severe side-effects of several actual approved “pan” HDAC inhibitors. A literature search was conducted in MedLine, PubMed, Caplus, SciFinder Scholar databases from 2015 to the present. Since the disclosure that the HDAC-6 inhibitor Tubastatin A was able to bind HDAC-10 efficiently, several related analogues were synthesized and tested. Both tricyclic (25-30) and bicyclic (31-42) derivatives were considered. The best pharmacological profile was shown by 36 (HDAC-10 pIC50 = 8.4 and pIC50 towards Class I HDACs from 5.2–6.4). In parallel, based on the evidence that high levels of HDAC-8 are a marker of poor prognosis in neuroblastoma treatment, dual HDAC-8/10 inhibitors were designed. The hydroxamic acid TH34 (HDAC-8 and 10 IC50 = 1.9 µM and 7.7 µM, respectively) and the hybrid derivatives 46d, 46e and 46g were the most promising both in terms of potency and selectivity. Literature surveys indicate several structural requirements for inhibitory potency and selectivity towards HDAC-10, e.g., electrostatic and/or hydrogen bond interactions with E274 and complementarity to the P(E,A) CE motif helix.
HDAC-10, isozyme-selective inhibitors, antineoplastic agents, neuroblastoma, Tubastatin A, PCI-34051.
Department of the Chemical-Toxicological and Pharmacological Evaluation of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Catholic University “Our Lady of Good Counsel”, Tirana, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Milan, L. Mangiagalli 25 - 20133 Milan