Zakia Akter, Fabiha Zaheen Khan and Md. Asaduzzaman Khan*
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive type of breast cancer with enhanced metastasis and poor survival. Though chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), and gene delivery are used to treat TNBC, various side effects limit these therapeutics against TNBC. In this review article, we have focused on the mechanism of action of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics with targeted delivery on TNBC cells.
Methods: Research data were accumulated from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using searching criteria “gold nanoparticles and triple-negative breast cancer” and “gold nanoparticles and cancer”. Though we reviewed many old papers, most cited papers were from the last ten years.
Results: Various studies indicate that AuNPs can enhance bioavailability, site-specific drug delivery, and efficacy of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, PTT, and PDT as well as modulate gene expression. The role of AuNPs in the modulation of TNBC therapeutics through the inhibition of cell proliferation, progression, and metastasis has been proved in vitro and in vivo studies. As these mechanistic actions of AuNPs are most desirable to develop drugs with enhanced therapeutic efficacy against TNBC, it might be a promising approach to apply AuNPs for TNBC therapeutics.
Conclusion: This article reviewed the mechanism of action of AuNPs and their application in the enhancement of therapeutics against TNBC. Much more attention is required for studying the role of AuNPs in developing them either as a single or synergistic anti-cancer agent against TNBC.
Gold nanoparticles, triple-negative breast cancer, drug delivery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, phototherapy
Biological Sciences Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, Biological Sciences Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, Biological Sciences Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas