Alireza Hosseini, Michael R Hamblin, Hamed Mirzaei* and Hamid Reza Mirzaei*
The unique features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) govern the biological properties of many cancers, including hematological malignancies. TME factors can trigger invasion, and protect against drug cytotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis and activating specific signaling pathways (e.g. NF-ΚB). TME remodeling is facilitated due to the high self-renewal ability of the bone marrow. Progressing tumor cells can alter some extracellular matrix (ECM) components which act as a barrier to drug penetration in the TME. The initial progression of the cell cycle is controlled by the MAPK pathway (Raf/MEK/ERK) and Hippo pathway, while the final phase is regulated by the PI3K/Akt /mTOR and WNT pathways. In this review we summarize the main signaling pathways involved in drug resistance (DR) and some mechanisms by which DR can occur in the bone marrow. The relationship between autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and cellular signaling pathways in DR and apoptosis are covered in relation to the TME.
Drug resistance, Hematological malignancies, Tumor microenvironment, Autophagy, Endoplasmic reticulum stress
Laboratory Hematology and Blood Banking, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Department of Medical Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran