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Therapeutic Targeting of Inflammatory Pathways with Emphasis on NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Natural Products: A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Inflammatory Eye Diseases


Amro M. Soliman, Ru Hui Sim, Srijit Das* and Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh  


There is an increase in the incidence of inflammatory eye diseases worldwide. Several dysregulated inflammatory pathways, including the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, have been reported to contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and progression of ophthalmic diseases. Although the available allopathic/conventional medicine has demonstrated effectiveness in managing eye diseases, there is an ongoing global demand for alternative therapeutics with minimal adverse drug reactions, easy availability, increase in patient-compliance, and better disease outcome. Therefore, several studies are investigating the utilization of natural products and herbal formulations in impeding inflammatory pathways, including the NLRP3 inflammasome, in order to prevent or manage eye diseases. In the present review, we highlight the recently reported inflammatory pathways with special emphasis on NLRP3 Inflammasomes involved in the development of eye diseases. Furthermore, we present a variety of natural products and phytochemicals that were reported to interfere with these pathways and their underlying mechanisms of action. These natural products represent potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of several inflammatory eye diseases.


Inflammation, eye diseases, NLRP3 inflammasome, treatment, natural products.


Department of Biological Sciences—Physiology, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Tanglin Health Clinic, 50480 Kuala Lumpu, Department of Human & Clinical Anatomy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Department of Anatomy & Excellence Center of Osteology Research and Training, Cadaveric Surgical and Training Center, Chiang Mai University

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