Alessandro Allegra, Emanuela Sant'Antonio, Caterina Musolino and Roberta Ettari*
Several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides were reported to join to or to cooperate with different cells of the immune system, bone marrow, and peripheral cells and numerous data support that neuroactive molecules might control immune system activity and hemopoiesis operating on lymphoid organs, and the primary hematopoietic unit, the hematopoietic niche. Furthermore, many compounds seem to be able to take part to the leukemogenesis and lymphomagenesis process, and in the onset of multiple myeloma. In this review, we will assess the possibility that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may have a role in the onset of haematological neoplasms, may affect the response to treatment or may represent a useful starting point for a new therapeutic approach. More in vivo investigations are needed to evaluate neuropeptide’s role in haematological malignancies and the possible utilization as an antitumor therapeutic target. Comprehending the effect of the pharmacological administration of neuropeptide modulators on hematologic malignancies opens up new possibilities in curing clonal hematologic diseases to achieve more satisfactory outcomes.
Neurotransmitter, neuropeptides, hematopoiesis, immune system, hematological malignancies, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma
Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, Hematology, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, 55100 Lucca, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Chemistry, University of Messina